AP Art History Online
AP Art History is an introduction to major works of art and the concepts needed to understand them. This course fosters in-depth, holistic understanding of the history of art from a global perspective, and builds understanding of the place of art within broader historical, cultural, religious, and political frameworks. The functions and effects of art are the focus. The content of this course rests on five foundational sets of big ideas and art historical thinking skills that encourage exploration of art throughout time and place, with the goal of promoting student understanding of art history. Big ideas establish connections between historical concepts of art and artworks. Art historical thinking skills provide a framework for investigating the nature of art, the creation of art, and human responses to art.
This AP Art History course is designed to be equivalent with a one-semester introductory college- or university-level art history survey course. This course meets guidelines outlined in the College Board’s AP Art History Course and Exam Description.
Chapter 1: Art in the Stone Age
· Discuss the possible reasons for Paleolithic humans' decision to represent the world around them.
· Outline the kinds of evidence that can be used to infer the purpose of human artistic expression in the many millennia prior to written records.
· Describe the stylistic conventions humans used to represent the world during the Paleolithic era.
· Compare the pictorial conventions employed in Paleolithic and Neolithic art.
· Explain how shifting social systems contributed to the differences between Paleolithic and Neolithic art.
· Describe how climate change affected human culture and artistic production in the Neolithic era.
· List the materials and techniques of monumental architecture during the Neolithic era.
· Outline the appearance of coherent narratives in painting during the Neolithic period.
Chapter 2: Ancient Mesopotamia and Persia
· Outline the mythology of religion in ancient Mesopotamia and describe the relationship between religion and art.
· Describe early writing systems and their impact on Mesopotamian cultures.
· Discuss the Sumerian innovation of arranging two-dimensional narratives in registers.
· List the innovations of Akkadian artists, who created ruler portraits with divine attributes and were the first to cast hollow life-size bronze sculptures.
· Compare and contrast Assyrian and Persian palace architecture.
· Compare and contrast extant examples of Assyrian and Persian relief carving.
· Identify instances of intercultural exchange between ancient Mesopotamian and Persian civilizations and with other parts of the ancient world.
· Describe the form and function of the Mesopotamian ziggurat.
Chapter 3: Egypt from Narmer to Cleopatra
· Describe the role of the Nile River in Egyptian life as well as Egyptian art and architecture.
· Outline the basic tenets and divinities of the ancient Egyptian religion, especially as regards the afterlife.
· Discuss the persistence of traditional forms in Egyptian art and architecture.
· List differences and commonalities in Egyptian funerary and temple architecture.
· Catalogue the materials used to make Egyptian statues and wall reliefs.
· Explain the shift in formal and iconographic characteristics during the Amarna period of the New Kingdom.
· Contrast the primary building materials of early Mesopotamian and early Egyptian architecture.
· Outline the development and use of the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system.
· Identify examples of intercultural contact between Egypt and other ancient civilizations.
Chapter 4: The Prehistoric Aegean
· Differentiate the formal characteristics of Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean art from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Persia.
· List the principal sites and characteristics of Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean art.
· Compare and contrast the palatial complexes of the Minoans and the Mycenaeans.
· Describe the subjects and techniques of Minoan fresco paintings.
· List aspects of prehistoric Aegean art and architecture that preview those of ancient Greece.
· Discuss the evidence of intercultural contact among the three Aegean cultures discussed in this chapter, and between the Aegean cultures and ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations.
· Identify and describe the materials used to create prehistoric Aegean art.
· List the differences between Minoan and Mycenaean building materials and techniques.
Chapter 5: Ancient Greece
· Outline the formal and iconographic characteristics of Geometric, Orientalizing, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic art.
· Identify and describe the sources, orders, and components of ancient Greek architecture, including decorative elements.
· List the Greek gods and heroes and their attributes.
· Explain the meaning of idealism in Greek thought and the impact of idealism on Greek sculpture and architecture of the fifth century and afterward.
· Describe the stylistic evolution and subject matter of Greek vase painting.
· Describe the unique role played by the city-state of Athens and its Periclean building program in ancient Greek art and culture.
· Identify historical events and characters that exerted influence on the development of Greek art and architecture.
· Describe the changes in Greek representations of the human figure from the Geometric to the Hellenistic period, including the materials used in sculpture.
· Describe the importance and innovations of the Kritios Boy and the Doryphoros of Polykleitos as milestones in Greek art and thought.
Chapter 6: The Etruscans
· Describe the innovations in Etruscan art that differentiate it from that of the Greeks.
· Describe the role of trade in Etruscan art and culture.
· List the ways that terracotta was used in Etruscan art.
· Explain the forms, materials, and construction of Etruscan tombs.
· Describe what can be inferred from the decoration of Etruscan tombs about the Etruscan concept of an afterlife.
· Identify the major elements and materials of an Etruscan temple.
· Discuss the Etruscan use of metal in art and in everyday objects.
· Identify aspects of Etruscan art and culture that lived on in Roman art and culture.
Chapter 7: The Roman Empire
· Identify historical events and characters that influenced the development of Roman art and architecture.
· Illustrate with concrete examples the freedom with which the Romans handled the classical vocabulary of architecture inherited from the Greeks.
· Describe the major differences between Roman Republican portraiture and portraits of the Imperial period.
· Describe the forms, materials, and construction techniques of Roman architecture.
· Explain how Roman architecture and engineering helped the Roman Empire maintain peace and prosperity in the lands it had conquered.
· Discuss the relationship of civic building programs and imperial politics.
· Describe the importance of the arch in Roman architecture and engineering.
· Explain the relationship between social status and artistic expression.
· Identify the influences of other ancient cultures on Roman art and architecture
Chapter 8: Late Antiquity
· Explain the iconographic relationship of Late Antique Jewish and Christian art.
· Discuss the relationship of Roman and Early Christian art and architecture.
· Describe how classical sources and materials were adapted in Late Antique Christian iconography.
· Describe the plan and elevation of an Early Christian church of the fourth century.
· Explain the organization, function, and ornamentation of Early Christian catacombs.
· Discuss the materials, techniques, and processes used to create Late Antique art and architecture.
· Describe the mosaic programs of the Early Christian churches as both innovations and continuations of earlier iconography and techniques.
· Identify historical events and characters that exerted influence on the development of Late Antique art and architecture.
· Discuss the unique role of Constantine the Great in bridging classical and Christian worlds.
Chapter 9: Byzantium
· Distinguish the chronology, geopolitical considerations, and artistic conventions of the two parts of the Roman Empire in the Late Antique and Early Byzantine periods.
· Explain the unique contribution of Hagia Sophia to the history of architecture.
· Identify and discuss the persistence of classical traditions in art produced in the Early, Middle, and Late Byzantine periods.
· Explain the roles of iconophiles and iconoclasts in Byzantine religion and art.
· Describe the close relationship between Byzantine church architecture and Byzantine church decoration during the Middle Byzantine period.
· Discuss the types of Byzantine art created for private devotional use, including manuscripts and diptychs.
· Catalogue the materials and techniques of Byzantine mosaic.
· Explain the relationship of Byzantine mosaic and architecture.
Chapter 10: The Islamic World
· Describe the architecture of early Islamic culture and how it relates to Early Christian and Judaic examples.
· Explain the complex geometric patterning evident in the decorative elements of Islamic architecture such as mosaic, tilework, brickwork, and woodcarving.
· Describe the mosque and its features; differentiate the features required for worship from those electively added by the architects.
· List and describe the Islamic minor arts, including calligraphy, metalwork, and textiles.
· Differentiate between early Islamic architecture and later Islamic architecture.
· Compare and contrast the architecture of the Alhambra with the structures designed by the architect Sinan.
· Compare and contrast the Mosque of Selim II and the Hagia Sophia.
· Discuss the luxury arts of the later Islamic world.
Chapter 11: Early Medieval Europe
· Describe how Celtic art contributed to the beginning of a brand new attitude in European painting.
· Discuss the influence of classical and early Christian sources on early medieval art and architecture.
· Explain the role of vaulting and other support systems in early medieval church architecture.
· Describe the origin of the Carolingian Renaissance and its impact on art and architecture.
· Analyze the role monasteries played in the creation, preservation, and dissemination of manuscripts.
· Discuss the role of metalwork in early medieval art.
Chapter 12: Romanesque Europe
· Discuss the development of Romanesque building techniques and the design challenges that led to the various advances.
· List the ways pilgrimage journeys influenced Romanesque architecture.
· Discuss economic forces affecting Romanesque art and architecture.
· Identify the regional variations in Romanesque figural arts as evident in sculpture and drawing.
· Explain how and where large-scale figural sculpture returned to Europe during the Romanesque period.
· Discuss the significance of Santiago de Compostela to Romanesque art and architecture.
· Explain the role of monastic orders in the creation of Romanesque art and architecture.
· Describe the effect that the Crusades and Romanesque architecture and art had on each other
Chapter 13: Gothic Europe North of the Alps
· Describe the unique qualities of Gothic expression in England and Germany.
· Identify the various elements of the plan and elevation of Gothic churches and explain their functions.
· Explain how contemporary economic conditions are reflected in Gothic art and architecture.
· Identify examples of classical influence in Gothic sculpture.
· Describe the influence of the cult of the Virgin Mary on Gothic art and architecture.
· Describe the evolution of Gothic vaulting in cathedral architecture.
· List the ways the desire for light served as an important catalyst for change in cathedral architecture.
· Describe the materials and techniques of Gothic stained glass.
Chapter 15: South and Southeast Asia before 1200
· Describe the monuments of the Indus Civilization and characterize its treatment of the human figure.
· Explain how Buddhist beliefs were expressed in the iconography, art, and architecture of successive early periods in ancient India and Southeast Asia.
· Explain how Hindu beliefs were expressed in the iconography, art, and architecture of successive early periods in ancient India and Southeast Asia.
· Identify the attributes meant to identify the Buddha in art and discuss how the major episodes from his life are depicted in art.
· Identify at least three iconographic details that reflect variations in Hindu beliefs in different parts of India and Southeast Asia.
· Differentiate between southern- and northern-style Hindu temples.
· Distinguish the varieties of Hindu and Buddhist art and architecture in different regions of Southeast Asia, specifically Myanmar, Java, and Cambodia.
· Identify examples of intercultural contact among the groups of India and Southeast Asia, and between Asian and other ancient civilizations.
Chapter 16: China and Korea to 1279
· Identify innovations of Neolithic China in art.
· Explain how excavation of early Chinese tombs has affected our view of early Chinese art.
· Describe the significant artistic and architectural elements of the dynasties (Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han) prior to the Six Dynasties period.
· Discuss the impact of Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism on Chinese art and architecture.
· List the materials and formats used by Chinese painters.
· Describe the architectural and artistic accomplishments of the Tang and Song dynasties.
· Identify how belief systems appearing around Buddhism affected Chinese art.
· Describe the unique contributions of Korea to art and architecture in the earlier periods and after the adoption of Buddhism.
Chapter 17: Japan before 1333
· Outline the artistic and architectural accomplishments of each of the pre-Buddhist periods in Japan.
· Distinguish between Shinto and Buddhist shrine architectural strategies.
· Describe the unique place of the inner shrine at Ise in the history of architecture.
· List the materials and styles of Japanese Buddhist sculpture.
· Recognize the various external influences on Japanese architecture.
· Explain the relationship of scroll painting to Japanese society and culture.
· Discuss how communication with China and Korea affected Japanese art and architecture.
Chapter 18: Native American Cultures before 1300
· Discuss the Olmec culture and its role as the mother culture of Mesoamerica.
· Describe the art and monumental architecture of Teotihuacán.
· Identify the formal and iconographic characteristics of the art and architecture of the Classic Maya culture.
· List the early South American cultures and their artistic and architectural accomplishments.
· Describe the importance of textiles to Andean cultures.
· Explain the portability of art objects created by Early Native American Woodlands artists.
· Discuss the architectural constructions of the Native Americans, from the mounds of the Mississippian culture to the pueblos and kivas of the Anasazi.
· Describe the ceramic traditions of American cultures, including Mimbres pottery, Nasca and Moche ceramics, and Jaina clay sculpture.
Chapter 19: Africa before 1800
· Describe the core beliefs held by many African cultures and identify their expression in art.
· Discuss the traditions of figural sculpture practiced by distinct early African cultures.
· Explain how African objects functioned in their social contexts.
· List the challenges to creating a chronology and overview of the art history of the continent of Africa.
· Describe the effect of Christian and Islamic inroads on sub-Saharan cultures.
· Describe the trade network of the Great Zimbabwe culture and the impact it had on their artistic and architectural production.
· Catalogue the innovations evident in the Great Mosque in Djenne, Mali.
· Detail the impact that the Portuguese had on the artworks of the Sapi culture.
Chapter 14: Late Medieval Italy
· Explain how the plague affected artistic production in 14th-century Italy.
· Describe the role humanism played in 14th-century Italian art.
· Discuss the rise of professional artists' guilds and the new emphasis on individual artists.
· List the material, formal, and technical characteristics of 14th-century Italian architecture.
· Explain the crucial role of Giotto and of Duccio in the development of Italian painting.
· Explain how massing (illusion of weight and solidity) was crucial to the search for a new kind of space in the painting of "Proto-Renaissance" artists.
· Explain the reintroduction of optical effect in the art of the 14th century.
· List the major centers of innovation in 14th-century Italian art.
Chapter 20: Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Northern Europe
· List the contributions of the Dukes of Burgundy to late medieval and early Renaissance art.
· Identify the innovations in Claus Sluter’s Well of Moses that point toward a new kind of sculpture in northern Europe.
· Explain what makes iconography such an important part of the study of art history in Flemish regions.
· Explain the domestic localization of holy stories in Flemish painting (for example, the Mérode Triptych).
· Identify the influence of patrons in examples of 15th-century northern European art.
· Explain how economic conditions were reflected in works of art of the period.
· Discuss the intermingling of secular and sacred material in northern art, including the donor portrait.
· Outline the new artistic media that arose in response to the invention of the printing press.
Chapter 21: The Renaissance in Quattrocento Italy
· Describe the impact of Renaissance humanism on art in Florence.
· List the major formal developments in Quattrocento sculpture.
· Outline the major formal developments in Quattrocento painting.
· Discuss the formal and material characteristics of 15th-century Italian architecture.
· Describe the first public demonstration of perspective.
· Explain the relationship of humanism, science, and artistic production.
· Explain the role of princely courts on innovations in and support of art.
· Catalogue the materials and techniques of Renaissance painting, sculpture, and printmaking.
Chapter 22: Renaissance and Mannerism in Cinquecento Italy
· Describe the role of Florence, Rome, and Venice in the Italian High Renaissance.
· Discuss the style and artistic goals of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo.
· Outline the trends in architecture of this period and identify principal monuments.
· Identify the characteristics that distinguish Mannerist art from High Renaissance art.
· Discuss the status of artists in Renaissance society.
· Describe the role of women as artists and as painters in this period.
· Explain how the experiments of 15th-century artists were employed by 16th-century artists.
· Compare the artistic philosophies that distinguished Venetian Renaissance art from contemporary Florentine and Roman work.
Chapter 23: High Renaissance and Mannerism in Northern Europe and Spain
· Explain how 16th-century northern European art reflects the principles of the Protestant Reformation.
· Describe Dürer’s art theory and its impact on his work.
· Discuss the history, processes, and functions of prints in northern Europe.
· Detail the role of patrons in the art and architecture of the 16th century.
· Discuss the development of art and architecture during this period in France, especially as influenced by the patronage of Louis I.
· Outline the role of women as both artists and patrons during this period.
· Describe the influence of Italian Renaissance and Mannerist art in northern Europe and Spain.
· Describe how 16th-century Spanish art embodies the principles of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
Chapter 24: The Baroque in Italy and Spain
· Explain the Baroque elements contributing to the final design and appearance of Saint Peter’s in Rome.
· Describe how Bernini and Borromini manipulated classical architectural elements to engender a sense of energy and drama.
· Describe the critical part played by Caravaggio and Gentileschi in defining a new kind of representation in painting.
· Define tenebrism and describe its impact on art both inside and outside of Italy.
· Discuss how Spanish artists incorporated the values and emphasis of the Counter-Reformation in their works in Spain and New Spain.
· Describe the career and artistic achievements of the Spanish painter Diego Velázquez, including his work under the patronage of Philip IV.
· Explain the significance of the classical tradition in examples of 17th-century art and architecture.
· Describe the advances and innovations in ceiling painting in Baroque buildings.
Chapter 25: The Baroque in Northern Europe
· Explain the religious and economic factors that influenced the artistic forms and subjects of this period in northern Europe.
· Describe the role of Peter Paul Rubens and others in Flemish art and in other spheres of life in Flanders.
· Describe the economic conditions in the Dutch Republic that gave rise to a wealthy middle class, and discuss the artistic tastes and preferences of that group.
· Discuss the meaning and symbolism of luxury items represented in Dutch painting, especially in portraits and scenes showing domestic interiors.
· Describe the works and careers of Rembrandt van Rijn and Johannes Vermeer.
· Describe the effects of the artistic patronage of Louis XIV on the art and architecture of France, especially the innovations of the palatial complex at Versailles.
· Explain the return of classical ideas and ideals to the art of northern Europe during the Baroque.
· List important architectural projects in England during the 17th century as well as the socioeconomic conditions that produced them.
Chapter 26: Rococo to Neoclassicism: The 18th Century in Europe and America
· Describe similarities and differences in French Rococo and French Baroque art.
· Explain why fête galante paintings were popular in Rococo France.
· Name and describe the work of an artist who adapted the Rococo manner to huge ceiling frescoes.
· Explain what effect the Enlightenment had on 18th-century European and American art.
· Identify which French painters were most closely allied with the thinking of Rousseau.
· Describe the role of Neoclassicism in the end of the Rococo style as well as the relationship of Neoclassicism and politics in France.
· Describe the role of Thomas Jefferson in popularizing Neoclassicism in the United States.
· Analyze the impact of the French Revolution on painting of the period.
Chapter 27: Romanticism, Realism, Photography: Europe and America, 1800 to 1871
· Discuss the role Neoclassicism played in art and architecture under Napoleon.
· Describe the differences between Neoclassicism and Romanticism.
· Explain how and why architecture of this period revived prior architectural styles.
· Analyze the influence of the exotic, erotic, and fantastic in the development of European art in the early 19th century.
· Explain how you classify Francisco Goya’s work in terms of “isms.”
· Compare and contrast Romanticism in Germany, England, and the United States.
· Explain the relationship of the social order of France in the mid-19th century to the popularity of Realism in that society’s painting and printmaking.
· Employ two contrasting examples to discuss the role of gender and race in artworks from this period.
· List the major Realist painters in France.
· Discuss two instances of how architecture of this period responded to social and political forces.
· Use an example from this period to show the connection between art and literature.
· Explain the influence that early photography had on painting.
· Describe how early photography both fit and did not fit definitions of the time of what constituted “fine art.”
Chapter 28: Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Symbolism: Europe and America, 1870 to 1901
· Describe the significance of time and transient effects on Impressionism.
· Discuss the initial reaction to Impressionism.
· Explain why Post-Impressionism is not a unified style.
· Analyze the differing approach to painting by four major Post-Impressionist artists.
· Explain why Symbolism is very different from both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism.
· Demonstrate why Rodin had such an important influence on modern art.
· Discuss the aims of both the Arts and Crafts movement and the Art Nouveau movement.
· List three examples of architecture that embraced new building materials and techniques before the end of the 19th century.
· Explain how the term organic applies to two or three examples of art, design, or building from this period.
· Analyze the influence of non-European art on Post-Impressionist painting.
Chapter 29: Modernism in Europe, 1900 to 1946
· Describe the characteristics of three art movements in the early 20th century that departed radically from 19th-century art.
· Assess why the short period from 1905 to 1910 was crucial to the development of both modern art and modern physics.
· Analyze the influence of non-European art on the development of Pablo Picasso’s work.
· Discuss the relationship between art and World War I.
· Explain the meanings of “total architecture” and “machines for living.”
· Interpret an instance of how one of the “isms” in this period was the product of intense artistic collaboration.
· Explain what is meant by the “treachery of images” and why this concept is important for early-20th-century art.
· List at least three artists associated with Surrealism.
· Compare the architecture of Gropius and Le Courbusier.
Chapter 30: Modernism in the United States and Mexico, 1900 to 1946
· Analyze the impact of the Armory Show on American art and attitudes.
· Explain why Alfred Stieglitz was an important figure in the development of painting and sculpture as well as photography in early modern American art.
· List the key art movements and their artists in Mexico from 1930 to 1945.
· Discuss the Harlem Renaissance and its significance within the development of American art.
· Describe why Grant Woods’s American Gothic is an example of Regionalism.
· Compare the differences between Art Deco and organic architecture.
· Describe the ways the art patronage and matronage shaped the development of early-20th-century American art.
· Relate two examples of how humor played a role in American art of this period.
Chapter 31: Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 1945 to 1981
· Compare gestural abstraction and chromatic abstraction in American art.
· Describe the reaction represented by Post-Painterly Abstraction.
· Explain how Pop Art was a response the idea of abstract art.
· Analyze the marriage of social concerns and certain forms or forces in modern art.
· Explain the differences between modernist architecture (including the International School) and postmodern architecture.
· Demonstrate why some critics explain Conceptual Art as an attack on the economics
· of art.
· Discuss the significance of Performance Art in the evolution of 20th-century art.
· Describe the role of “new media” in the evolution of modern art.
· List the main features of modern sculpture.
Chapter 32: Contemporary Art Worldwide
· Explain with examples how many contemporary artists use art in differing ways to address pressing social and political issues.
· List examples of artists for whom gender and sexuality are central themes.
· Discuss whether contemporary art must be considered on a worldwide or global basis.
· Define brutal realism.
· Describe basic distinguishing characteristics of Hi-Tech architecture and Deconstructivist architecture.
· Demonstrate, with an example, how site-specific work can blur the distinction between sculpture and other forms of creation.
· Discuss an example of contemporary art that represents the expanded definition in our era of how “art” can be defined.
· Analyze the use by a contemporary artist of subject matter or styles from a prior era
Chapter 33: South and Southeast Asia, 1200 to 1981
· Describe the movement of Islam across the Indian subcontinent.
· Discuss the impact of the Mughal Empire on the art of India.
· Analyze how Mughal artists created miniature paintings for manuscripts.
· List examples of the ways the art of the Rajput kingdom differed from that of the Mughal Empire.
· Explain the circumstances surrounding the construction of the Taj Mahal.
· Demonstrate the changing role that the British played in Indian artistic endeavors from colonization through Indian independence.
· Describe the role of Indian nationalism in 19th- and 20th-century Indian art.
· Explain how Indian artists of the last century incorporate earlier themes and styles into their work.
· Discuss Buddhist beliefs in terms of that religion’s impact on art and architecture in Thailand and Myanmar (Burma).
Chapter 34: China and Korea, 1279 to 1981
· Interpret the impact the Mongol emperors had on the arts of China.
· Compare Chinese literati painters of the Yuan and Ming dynasties.
· Describe the Ming Imperial City, including the Forbidden City and the pleasure gardens.
· Discuss the concept of “primordial line” in Qing literati painting.
· Describe the process of producing Chinese lacquered wood.
· Explain two different instances of foreign influence in Chinese arts and culture.
· List the porcelain traditions in China from the Yuan to the Qing dynasties.
· Analyze the impact of Communism on Chinese art.
· Compare the use of the gateway in Chinese and Korean architecture.
Chapter 35: Japan, 1333 to 1981
· Describe the religious and artistic changes that appeared during the Muromachi period in Japan.
· Explain Zen Buddhism’s influence on Japanese art and architecture.
· Discuss how Japanese art of the Momoyama period reflects that era’s warlord control in Japan.
· Describe the role of art in the Japanese tea ceremony.
· Analyze the gradual changes that appear in Japanese art when the capital moved from Kyoto to Tokyo.
· List the factors that account for the rapid entry of Japanese art and architecture into the international milieu.
· Compare the style of the two Muromachi painters, Sesshu Toyo and Kano Motonobu.
· Discuss the advent of the Rinpa school as an alternative to the traditional schools of painting.
· Demonstrate how the combination of traditional art with crafts created new avenues of creation.
· Explain how the increasingly urban population of Japan enabled both literati styles and ukiyo-e.
· Contrast the factors behind the Westernization of Japanese oil painting and the work of Ernest Fenollosa and Okakura Kakuzo to resist this Westernization.
· Discuss how folk art and refined rusticity impacted Japanese ceramic traditions.
Chapter 36: Native American Cultures, 1300 to 1981
· Describe the extent of Aztec power in the period before the Spanish conquest.
· List the chief subjects of Aztec art.
· Analyze what the architecture and reliefs of Tenochtitlán reveal about Aztec society.
· Explain the close relationship between Inka engineering and Inka art, architecture, and urban planning.
· Compare preconquest Maya books with the later Native American decoration of ledger books.
· Recall major monuments of Southwest Native American societies.
· Describe the role played by masks in the arts of nations of the Northwest.
· Explain how the design and decoration of totem poles relate to their function in Haida culture.
· Debate the impact of US government actions on the arts and cultures of Plains societies.
Chapter 37: Oceania before 1981
· Describe the relationship of Dreamings and the X-ray style in Australian art.
· Explain where one would find a bisj pole as well as the pole’s purpose.
· List the central architectural features of an Iatmul village.
· Analyze the role of ancestors in the art and architecture of Oceania.
· Interpret the form and function of the Dilukai figures.
· Describe the likely purpose of the colossal monolithic sculptures on Rapa Nui (Easter Island).
· List the uses of barkcloth in the art of Oceania.
· Explain the purposes of tattooing in Polynesia.
· Discuss the arts produced for the Hawaiian kings.
Chapter 38: Africa, 1800 to 1981
· Compare two examples of traditional African arts that survived into the 19th century.
· Explain the hierarchy of importance of African royal arts.
· Understand and describe the importance of Akati Akpele Kendo.
· Describe the power figure in Kongo art.
· Analyze the technique and purpose of combining metal with woodcarving.
· Explain the importance of the ancestral altar of King Eweka II of Benin.
· Debate the assertion: “In Africa, art is nearly always an active agent in the lives of its peoples.”
· Discuss an example of “coded information” included in African costume and jewelry, as well as other forms of body adornment such as elaborate coiffures and body painting.